Historically, some notable hypotheses were put forward to explain the evolution of agriculture. One of these is the oasis hypothesis put forward by Raphael Pumpel(1980) which was promoted by Verve Gordon E. This hypothesis states that because of dry conditions agriculturists at that time moved closer to oasis. Others are the evolutionary hypothesis, domestication hypothesis, specialization/innovation hypothesis, demographic theories, Hilly Flanks hypothesis, Feasting model and the Levantine primary model.
In the Neolithic era, some argue that the real origin of agriculture cannot be established because by then writing has not been invented as at the time men started gathering and hunting. The earliest plants cultivated were rye (10,000 BCE), wild grain in Africa and Asia(20000 BCE), rachis (about 9500 BCE), wheat, barley, flax, peas, fig trees etc.
In the bronze age, agricultural activities can be traced to the Sumerians(C. 5500 BCE). The Sumerians used special labour force in addition to the use of land for monocropping and irrigation. This was followed by the Egyptians who were farming at the Nile valley. Grapes, wheat, barley, apples, dates, etc were some of the crops cultivated in this era. Oxen were used for ploughing and sickles were used in harvesting sickles. The Syrians were known to make use of wagons, oxen, collars and headstals.
The classical era of agriculture was dominated by the Romans & Greece which they learnt from the Sumerians. The Romans were known for their Monarial economic system. Their farms have various sizes-small, medium and large. The management of the farms were the farmers themselves, slave managers, tenant farming as well as leasing them to tenants. Depending on the type of soil, their agricultural specialization was based on the production of olive oil, wine and grains.
Because of civilization each regions of the world started improving on their agricultural activities from time to time to what agriculture and agricultural practices, agricultural techniques and agricultural production is today. As long there are technological advancement with time, maybe more sophisticated methods may be developed so as to achieve better agricultural productivity in terms of quality and quantities.
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